In small paved gardens, use walls and trellises with climbers to grow vertically and make the most of limited space: jasmine and honeysuckle are popular pollinator-friendly choices in courtyard garden design.

Use a combination of evergreens, shrubs and small trees to provide structure and year-round interest, for example hebe, black elder and pyracanthus,

Then add some seasonal colour with geraniums, penstemon, poppies, verbena, erigeron, astrantia, alliums, spring bulbs, ajuga, rudbeckia, ecinacea, agastache, and many more. And maybe some raised beds for herbs and edibles.